Changing trends in bariatric surgery

November 15, 2021

Background and aims: Bariatric surgery is considered the only long-lasting treatment for morbid obesity. Techniques and procedures have changed dramatically. We report on some of the major changes in the field.

Materials and methods: We reviewed some of the major changes in trends in bariatric surgery based on some landmark paper published in the literature.

Results: We identified three major phases in the evolution of bariatric surgery. The pioneer phase was mostly characterized by discovery of weight loss procedures serendipitously from procedures done for other purposes. The second phase can be identified with the advent of laparoscopic techniques. This is considered the phase of greatest expansion of bariatric surgery. The metabolic phase derives from the improved understanding of the mechanisms of actions of the bariatric operations at the hormonal and molecular level.

Conclusions: Bariatric surgery has changed significantly over the years. The safety of the laparoscopic approach, along with the better understanding of the metabolic changes obtained postoperatively, has led to a more individualized approach and also an attempt to expand the indications for these procedures.

Keywords: Bariatric surgery; gastric bypass; laparoscopy; metabolic surgery; sleeve gastrectomy; trends.